The dinaburg fortress in Daugavpils is considered to be one of the main symbols of the city. This is a gem, and the most important cultural and historic monument of the second largest city in Latvia, Daugavpils. It is the only preserved in the Baltic States without significant changes in the first half of the 19th century fortress is vivid evidence of the military history of Imperial Russia. Ensemble the fortress forms the main Fortress (Citadel) and shaft, 8 bastions (pentagonal, made up of strengthening on the corners of the fortress), ravelins (three corners is consolidation ahead of the shaft between the bastions), external protective shaft, which is the road on the right bank of the Daugava River, and some bridge building on the left bank of the river. The territory of the fortress was oval in shape and divided into quarters. At their Center is a square parade ground. Around the square are areas of administrative and residential buildings. The facades of the buildings in the style of the Russian Empire style.
Despite all her seeming youthfulness, the history of the fortress is not so simple. For many centuries the territory of modern Latvia was an arena of wars between the Germans, Swedes, poles and Russians for supremacy in the Baltic States. In the middle of the 13th century, German Crusaders (Livonian brothers of the sword) to keep in check the local population of Latgalian and confront the Princes decided to create strongholds. One of these items was to become Dinaburg Castle, named after the river — Dina (in ancient times it was the path from the Varangians to the Greeks). The place chosen Knights on the banks of the Daugava River, where there is now a town Naujene that upstream of the river Daugava from Daugavpils at 19 km today. There were trade routes from Pskov and Novgorod to Polotsk and Vilna in Riga and the Baltic.
During the Livonian war, August 11, 1577, the troops of Ivan the terrible took Castle Dinaburg, but soon were forced to return it back to the poles. The Russians do not have to continue to fight for the old, dilapidated, Castle, and 19 kilometers downstream of the Daugava River, at the mouth of the river Šunica, began the construction of a new fortress called trench of Ivan the terrible. Russia lost in the war with Poland, and under a contract signed in January 1582, the entire territory of Latvia were ceded to Poland. The Poles in place of the trench of Ivan the terrible began building more powerful fortress. She was surrounded by earthen ramparts, which were bastions. During the Polish-Swedish war, in 1625 and 1635, the town and the Castle were badly damaged by Swedish troops. After the war, the fortress was restored. Gradually developing, built on a new site Dinaburg was compete in trade matters with other cities. But ongoing hostilities prevented further development of the city. In 1655, the Swedes again took Dinaburgskuû Castle from the weakening of Poland, they prevented a Russian win over Latvia. In a bit of the time indicated: books … thethe strugah past the city pass cannot be, because with the city and opposite the town on the banks of the River šancy, and corroboration of the River from the shore-half piŝalej of were shooting constantly. "
For this reason, Russia started a war with Sweden, and July 30, 1656 year the King Alexei Mikhailovich with his army, composed of Tatars, Chuvashes and noble Cavalry, after three violent assaults broke the Swedes of the Dinaburg fortress. In the year 1667, in Andrusove, a peace treaty was signed between Russia and Sweden, which Russia renounced all conquests in Latgale, and the city was returned to Poland. In February 1700 year Northern War began. The fortress occupied by Saxon troops, allies of Russia. In the year 1710 in Latgale region suffered from the plague. Railway garrison is almost completely extinct, the Fort was disarmed, the guns were removed in Vilna. In 1772, the first partition of Poland, Latgale was annexed by the Russian Empire. In 1810-m have a future construction and plan of the fortress. On the construction of powerful design was employed 15000 people.
In 1812, after bloody fighting, the French army occupied the unfinished structures at 5 months. Then construction continued, and in 1833-m Emperor Nicholas II consecrated the fortress. The year of birth is considered to be the year 1878, when construction ended. Unfortunately, quickly losing its military importance, the dinaburg fortress in 1897, was turned into a warehouse. In the 1920-1940 's there were shelves of the Latvian army, during the second world war, the area was transformed by the Nazis into a huge concentration camp Stalag 340, and from 1948 to 1994 year here was Daugavpils higher military aviation engineering school, which drafted the engineering stuff for air force and air defense Aviation of the USSR. The territory of the fortress was closed, so many locals knew her only for weddings from Daugavpils beauties with the military. From 1998 on, the fortress was passed into the possession of the State real property Agency. Now in restoration work is underway and the fortress gradually it is being revived now for military purposes: in the building of Arsenal host Center Mark Rothko exhibition of original works and artists ' residencies.